Skip Nav

Federalist Papers Summary No. 10

Federalist Essays No.10 - No.17

❶With equal, nay, with greater reason, a body of men are unfit to be both judges and parties, at the same time; yet, what are many of the most important acts of legislation, but so many judicial determinations, not indeed concerning the rights of single persons, but concerning the rights of large bodies of citizens?

by James Madison

Brief Summary
Why Were the Federalist Papers Written?
Federalist No. 10

The series of essays called the Federalist Papers, written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, were first published in newspapers under the pseudonym of "Publius" at the same time that the Constitution had been sent to the states for ratification.

Later, they were published as the book "The Federalist. What Is "Federalist No. Quick Answer Federalist Paper No. Why Were the Federalist Papers Written? Why Did the Federalists Oppose the War of ? Full Answer In Federalist No. The federal constitution forms a happy combination in this respect; the great and aggregate interests, being referred to the national, the local and particular to the state legislatures.

The other point of difference is, the greater number of citizens, and extent of territory, which may be brought within the compass of republican, than of democratic government; and it is this circumstance principally which renders factious combinations less to be dreaded in the former, than in the latter. The smaller the society, the fewer probably will be the distinct parties and interests composing it; the fewer the distinct parties and interests, the more frequently will a majority be found of the same party; and the smaller the number of individuals composing a majority, and the smaller the compass within which they are placed, the more easily will they concert and execute their plans of oppression.

Extend the sphere, and you take in a greater variety of parties and interests; you make it less probable that a majority of the whole will have a common motive to invade the rights of other citizens; or if such a common motive exists, it will be more difficult for all who feel it to discover their own strength, and to act in unison with each other. Besides other impediments, it may be remarked, that where there is a consciousness of unjust or dishonourable purposes, communication is always checked by distrust, in proportion to the number whose concurrence is necessary.

Hence it clearly appears, that the same advantage, which a republic has over a democracy, in controling the effects of faction, is enjoyed by a large over a small republic. Does this advantage consist in the substitution of representatives, whose enlightened views and virtuous sentiments render them superior to local prejudices, and to schemes of injustice? It will not be denied, that the representation of the union will be most likely to possess these requisite endowments.

Does it consist in the greater security afforded by a greater variety of parties, against the event of any one party being able to outnumber and oppress the rest? In an equal degree does the increased variety of parties, comprised within the union, increase this security. Does it, in fine, consist in the greater obstacles opposed to the concert and accomplishment of the secret wishes of an unjust and interested majority? Here, again, the extent of the union gives it the most palpable advantage.

The influence of factious leaders may kindle a flame within their particular states, but will be unable to spread a general conflagration through the other states: In the extent and proper structure of the union, therefore, we behold a republican remedy for the diseases most incident to republican government.

And according to the degree of pleasure and pride we feel in being republicans, ought to be our zeal in cherishing the spirit, and supporting the character of federalists. Carey and James McClellan Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, , Federalist 10 is part of a remarkable public discussion, spawned by the ratification debates, between Federalists and Antifederalists on the nature of republican government.

Many Antifederalists believed that the Constitution would lead to a large, consolidated nation and abolish the republican governments in the states, which in turn would lead to violations of the rights of citizens. Madison turned that argument on its head by pointing out that in republican governments, in which the majority must rule, an all-powerful majority often sacrifices the natural rights of the minority to their own selfish interests.

Tyranny was just as possible in republican governments as under monarchies; and smaller republics — that is, republics the size of the American states — were especially prone to the danger of majority faction. How does Madison define a faction? What two things may be done to eliminate the causes of faction, and why does Madison reject them? What aspects of a republic make it prone to faction, but less susceptible than a democracy? What advantages does a large republic have over a small one for preventing and controlling the effects of majority faction?

Read a paragraph-by-paragraph analysis of this document by Gordon Lloyd. Brutus I by Brutus October 18, Federal Farmer I October 08, Search Entire Site Documents Only.

We the Teachers Blog. Request a Classroom Webinar. Liberty Fund Weekend Colloquia. Programs for Graduate Credit. Full Document Summary Related Documents.

Suppose tobacco farmers in North Carolina through thought or corruption or whatever gained sufficient support in their state to pass a law requiring all individuals over 13 years of age to smoke tobacco. They then brought this desire to the Federal Republican Government.

But here their interests would have minimal support from representatives from Maine, Texas, and everywhere else other than NC because the representatives from all other states considering the liberty of their constituents and the good of the rest of the country would never approve such a law at the national level. Therefore a large Republic will defeat the will of a faction if it is detrimental to the whole because of the merit of the representatives, the founders thought.

Party Unity at the Congressional level will defeat our form of representative government as it did with Obamacare. If representatives vote with the party interests over the interests of the people then a representative form of government will fail in the protection of the liberty of the people. If our representatives, House and Senate, are of the people, meaning one of us, by the people, meaning elected by us, and for the Party instead of for the people, then our country may indeed perish from this earth.

There is nothing in the constitution preventing this behavior nor should there be. It is this form of Party Politics that is wrong, not the constitution, and it should be disgraced and every politician behaving this way should be shamed and ridiculed until it stops. We are beginning to see some hope with the representatives that have been elected to uphold Tea Party principles turning against their party leaders when necessary to vote for the people.

From the SparkNotes Blog

Main Topics

Privacy Policy

The Federalist Summary No Madison November 22, This paper is considered an important document in American history for it lays out how the writers of the constitution defined the form of government that would protect minority rights from organized and united factions that intended to pass legislation injurious to the liberty of the minority or detrimental to the good of the country.

Privacy FAQs

Federalist Essays No - No Summary The practical advantages of the union held together by the U.S. Constitution include a reduction of factions, proactive promotion of trade and wealth, and a more cost-effective government.

About Our Ads

A summary of Federalist Essays No - No in The Founding Fathers's The Federalist Papers (). Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of The Federalist Papers () and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, . Get free homework help on The Federalist: book summary, chapter summary and analysis and original text, quotes, essays, and character analysis courtesy of CliffsNotes. First published in , The Federalist is a collection of 85 newspaper articles, written by the mysterious Publius, that argued swift ratification of the U.S. Constitution.

Cookie Info

Federalist Paper No. 10, written pseudonymously by James Madison in support of the new United States Constitution, is about how to guard the new government of the union against factions, or groups of citizens with special interests. The Federalist Papers study guide contains a biography of Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.